The basic composition of CNC lathe
The CNC lathe is composed of CNC device, bed, spindle box, tool post feed system, tailstock, hydraulic system, cooling system, lubrication system, chip conveyor and other parts.
CNC lathes are divided into two types: vertical CNC lathes and horizontal CNC lathes.
Vertical CNC lathes are used for turning disc parts with large turning diameters.
Horizontal CNC lathes are used for turning of long or small disc parts in axial size.
Horizontal CNC lathes can be further divided into economical CNC lathes, ordinary CNC lathes and turning centers according to their functions.
Economical CNC lathe: a simple CNC lathe formed by transforming the turning feed system of an ordinary lathe by using a stepping motor and a single-chip microcomputer. The cost is low, the degree of automation and functions are relatively poor, and the turning accuracy is not high, and it is suitable for turning of rotary parts with low requirements.
Ordinary CNC lathe: It is specially designed in structure according to the requirements of turning processing, and is equipped with a general CNC system. The CNC system has strong functions, high degree of automation and high machining accuracy, and is suitable for turning of general rotary parts. This CNC lathe can control two coordinate axes at the same time, namely the x-axis and the z-axis.
Turning machining center: On the basis of ordinary CNC lathes, C-axis and power head are added. More advanced machine tools also have tool magazines, which can control the three coordinate axes of X, Z and C. The linkage control axis can be ( X, Z), (X, C) or (Z, C). Due to the addition of C-axis and milling power head, the processing function of this CNC lathe is greatly enhanced. In addition to general turning, it can also perform radial and axial milling, surface milling, holes and diameters whose centerline is not in the center of rotation of the part. Drilling of holes, etc.
Hydraulic chuck and hydraulic tailstock
Hydraulic chuck is an important accessory for clamping workpieces in CNC turning. For general rotary parts, ordinary hydraulic chucks can be used; for parts whose clamped parts are not cylindrical, special-purpose chucks are required. Chucks; spring chucks are required when machining parts directly from bar stock. For parts with a large ratio of axial size to radial size, it is necessary to use a live center installed on the hydraulic tailstock to support the tail end of the part, so as to ensure the correct processing of the part. There are common hydraulic tailstocks and programmable hydraulic tailstocks.
CNC Bearing Lathe
CNC Bearing Lathe
Universal Tool Rest
CNC lathes can be equipped with two tool rests:
① Special tool rest: It is developed by the lathe manufacturer itself, and the tool holder used is also dedicated. The advantage of this tool holder is that it is cheap to manufacture, but it lacks versatility.
②Universal tool holder: The tool holder produced according to certain general standards (such as VDI, German Association of Engineers), CNC lathe manufacturers can choose and configure according to the functional requirements of CNC lathes.
head After installing the milling power head on the CNC lathe tool holder, the processing capacity of the CNC lathe can be greatly expanded. Such as: axial drilling and milling of axial grooves with a milling power head.
When the tool
of the CNC lathe turns parts on the CNC lathe or turning center, the position of the tool on the tool holder should be reasonably and scientifically arranged according to the tool holder structure of the lathe and the number of tools that can be installed, and attention should be paid to avoid the tool being stationary and When working, the interference phenomenon between the tool and the machine tool, the tool and the workpiece, and the tool.
The machine tool constitutes
the main engine, which is the main body of the CNC machine tool, including the machine body, column, spindle, feed mechanism and other mechanical components. It is a mechanical part used to complete various cutting operations.
The numerical control device is the core of the numerical control machine tool, including hardware (printed circuit board, CRT display, key box, paper tape reader, etc.) and corresponding software, which is used to input the digital part program, and complete the storage of input information and data storage. Transform, interpolate, and implement various control functions.
The drive device is the drive component of the CNC machine tool actuator, including the spindle drive unit, the feed unit, the spindle motor and the feed motor. He realizes the spindle and feed drive through the electric or electro-hydraulic servo system under the control of the numerical control device. When several feeds are linked, the processing of positioning, straight line, plane curve and space curve can be completed.
Auxiliary devices, some necessary supporting components of the index control machine tool, to ensure the operation of the CNC machine tool, such as cooling, chip removal, lubrication, lighting, monitoring, etc. It includes hydraulic and pneumatic devices, chip removal devices, exchange tables, CNC turntables and CNC indexing heads, as well as tools and monitoring and testing devices.
Programming and other auxiliary equipment can be used to program and store parts outside the machine.
Since MIT developed the world's first CNC machine tool in 1952, CNC machine tools have been widely used in the manufacturing industry, especially in the automotive, aerospace, and military industries. , have developed rapidly.